Congenital Anomalies


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Conjoined Twins

Conjoined Twins in 4D Scan

3D and 4D ultrasonography is essential for evaluation of multiple pregnancy, where the number of embryos or fetuses can be correctly estimated.

  • In twins, amnionicity, chorionicity, zygosity of pregnancy is recognized by 3D and 4D US.
  • The extension of fusion between the two fetuses and the organ sharing can be easily assessed.

Diprosopus is an expression of incomplete duplication occurring in only one part of the body.

  • The fetus has a one body, one head and two faces.
  • The fusion occurs along the parieto-zygomatic-maxillary area.
  • Each face has its nose, mouth, chin and share the checks, and one of the adjacent eyes.

Thoraco-abdomino-pagus shows a fusion along the thoraco-abdominal area with a common heart.

  • There is a fusion in the thorax, four upper and four lower limbs.
  • One of the conjoined twins has an associated exomphalos protruding from the abdominal wall.
  • There are two head, two necks, four upper and four lower limbs.
  • STIC heart examination showed each fetus has its own heart with shared vessels in between through the junction.



Congenital Anomalies Ultrasound Course

How to Purchase This Online Ultrasound Course

In this online ultrasound course you will learn how to approach and diagnose common morphologic fetal congenital anomalies using 3D/4D ultrasound.

Head and Neck Anomalies

  1. Occipital Encephalocele.
  2. Congenital Hydrocephalus.
  3. Oropharyngeal Teratoma.
  4. Cystic Hygroma.

Thoracic Anomalies

  1. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
  2. Congenital Hydrothorax.

Fetal Abdominal Anomalies

  1. Hirschsprung Disease.
  2. Exomphalos Major.
  3. Gastroschisis.
  4. Duodenal Atresia.
  5. Small Intestinal Obstruction.

Fetal Renal Anomalies

  1. Congenital Hydronephrosis.
  2. ARPCKD (Potter Type I).
  • Fetal Back Anomalies
  1. Spina Bifida.
  2. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.

Included Ultrasound Videos

  • Cystic Hygroma.
  • Congenital Hydrothorax (Pleural Effusion).
  • Pleural Effusion (Hydrothorax).
  • Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM) of the Lung.
  • Exomphalos Major (Omphalocele).
  • Gastroschisis.
  • Hirschsprung Disease.
  • Congenital Hydronephrosis.
  • Congenital Hydronephrosis – Virtual Contrast Imaging (Omni View).
  • Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (Potter Type I).
  • Bilateral Renal Agenesis.
  • TUI of Fetal Ovarian Cyst.
  • Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.
  • Conjoined Twins.

Click on Curriculum tab above to view included lectures and quizzes.


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