Congenital Anomalies


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Cystic Hygroma

 Cystic Hygroma in 4D Scan

These are anomalies of the lymphatic system characterized by
  1. Single or multiple cysts within the soft tissues, usually involving the neck.
  2. They are frequently in association with chromosomal defects (68%) especially with Turner’s syndrome.
  3. Demonstration of typical honeycomb multiple septate cystic structures usually located in the occipito-cervical region is the clue for diagnosis.

Large lesions show other anatomic defects or signs of non-immune hydrops. Chromosomal study is mandatory for further and final diagnosis.

There is a  massive septated cyst, fluid filled, located along the posterior cervical line and extending proximally to cover the occiput, vertex and frontal area and distally to the thoracic area.

The lesion is due to cervical lymphatic obstruction with failure of communication with the jugular venous system.
The sequence of obstruction are:
1- Generalized skin edema,
2- Pleural effusion and lung hypoplasia,
3- Pericardial effusion and
4- Ascites.
There is a high association with: 
1- Fetal monosomy (xo), trisomy 18, 13, 21, and XXY chromosomal pattern.
2- Cardiac, renal and skeletal defects.

The longitudinal scan shows:

  1. Scalp edema.
  2. Skin edema.
  3. Increased nuchal fold thickening with septations.
  4. Normal Spine.
  5. Hypoplastic chest.



Congenital Anomalies Ultrasound Course

How to Purchase This Online Ultrasound Course

In this online ultrasound course you will learn how to approach and diagnose common morphologic fetal congenital anomalies using 3D/4D ultrasound.

Head and Neck Anomalies

  1. Occipital Encephalocele.
  2. Congenital Hydrocephalus.
  3. Oropharyngeal Teratoma.
  4. Cystic Hygroma.

Thoracic Anomalies

  1. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
  2. Congenital Hydrothorax.

Fetal Abdominal Anomalies

  1. Hirschsprung Disease.
  2. Exomphalos Major.
  3. Gastroschisis.
  4. Duodenal Atresia.
  5. Small Intestinal Obstruction.

Fetal Renal Anomalies

  1. Congenital Hydronephrosis.
  2. ARPCKD (Potter Type I).
  • Fetal Back Anomalies
  1. Spina Bifida.
  2. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.

Included Ultrasound Videos

  • Cystic Hygroma.
  • Congenital Hydrothorax (Pleural Effusion).
  • Pleural Effusion (Hydrothorax).
  • Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM) of the Lung.
  • Exomphalos Major (Omphalocele).
  • Gastroschisis.
  • Hirschsprung Disease.
  • Congenital Hydronephrosis.
  • Congenital Hydronephrosis – Virtual Contrast Imaging (Omni View).
  • Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (Potter Type I).
  • Bilateral Renal Agenesis.
  • TUI of Fetal Ovarian Cyst.
  • Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.
  • Conjoined Twins.

Click on Curriculum tab above to view included lectures and quizzes.


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